Photo by: Neal Spencer
Origin: Europe, Austria, and the former Yugoslavia (1).
Type of agent: Insect: Moth, clear wing (Lepidoptera: Sesiidea) (1).
Over wintering stage: Larval (inside the roots) (1).
Egg stage: It is thought that most of the eggs are laid singly on the lower part of the leafy spurge's stem. In eight to ten days, the dark brown colored eggs hatch (1).
Larval stage: From early summer to the following spring, the larval stage takes place in the root (1). Pupil stage: It is thought that from spring to early summer, pupation takes place in silky webs, usually near the root collar (1).
Adult stage: The adults have black bodies and yellow scaled wings. The wingspan of the adults is 13 to 30 mm (0.52 to 0.8 in). The adults have a very similar appearance to C. empiformis (1).
Destructive stages: Larval (inside the roots, root feeding) (1).
Plant species attacked: Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) (1).
Damage to host: Larvae feed in the larger root systems causing reducing of the root reserves and when they emerge, providing an opening for opportunistic pathogens to come in (1).
First introduced into the United States: 1975, Idaho and Montana (1).
Now established in: In the United States, this species has not been recovered (1).
Stage to transfer: Larval (inside the roots) (1) .
Redistribution: In order to redistribute C. tenthrediniformis, infested roots must be dug up in the late fall. Then, they must be kept at cool temperatures, until they can be planted and grown the next spring at ambit temperatures. As adults emerge, they must be identified and released into the leafy spurge infested field. If only small numbers can be obtained, put the moths into a large outdoor cage for one to two weeks. Then, remove the cage and let the moths disperse (1).
Comments: C. tenthrediniformis was introduced by accident as the name C. empiformis, but was unable to accept the host plants given to it, therefore it did not survive (1).
Order: Lepidoptera - butterflies, moths. Suborder: Glossata Infra order: Heteroneura Super family: Sesioidea. Family: Sesiidae - clear wing moth Genus: Chamaesphecia. Specific name: tenthrediniformi. Scientific name: Chamaesphecia tenthrediniformis Ochsenheimer 1808. (2)
1) Rees, Norman, et, al., Ed., Biological Control of Weeds in the West, Western Society of Weed Science, in cooperation with USDA, ARS, MT Dept. of Ag, and MT State Univ., Bozeman, Color World Printers, Bozeman MT, Feb., 1996.
2) Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
By: Forrest Lewton, Cody O'Donnell, & Whit Smith, 2/2003.
Updated By: Evan Lewton and Brandon Smith 1/30/2008.
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