<>Cultural Control For Dalmatian toadflax  -  Linaria dalmatica
Sheep: Sheep will eat Dalmatian toadflax. In fact this is a really effective way of controlling it because the sheep prefer the toadflax over the pastured grasses. (4,3,1) <>

Goat: Goats are the same as sheep, they will eat the whole plant and if they have the taste for it they will prefer it over grass.  They need to be kept in a small area to eat the plant to the ground.  This will not kill the plant in one year but will stop flowering. (4,3)
Cows:  Cows work verry well for these specific weeds.  Their extra stomach helps them to be able to digest the plant completely.(6,3)<>

Tilling (Plowing):  This method is 75-80% successful. It is a fairly good way of control.  One thing that you have to be careful of is that you have to do this repeatedly or else you aren't going to be very effective.  You have to cut up the roots constantly to kill them or you are going to get many little tiny plants and you'll have a worse problem then when you started.  When plowing Dalmation toadflax you have to plow it when it is just starting to grow, because if you don't then it will go to seed and you'll have a bigger problem now then you started with. So, if you plow Dalmation toadflax do it at the right time (start early) and repeatedly, and you'll have a very successful control.  Remember to check for new sprouts from seed for yearly for at least 10 years. (4,3) 
Hand Pulling: This is a pretty effective method of cultural control.  This method was 96% effective if the plants that were pulled before releasing seeds. When you hand pull this weed you must pull all of the root and you have to make sure that when you pull it is not flowering or the plant will still produce its seeds.  If you pull the plants at the right time (usually spring when the ground is moist and before the plants flower)  then within a matter of time the plants population will slowly start to decrease.  Remember to check for new sprouts from seed and pull these also for 10 years. (4,3,1) <>

Controlled Burning: There is really no effective control with burning.  If the seedlings were small enough then they will die but if the roots are growing then these and the seeds in the soil bank will not be effected. <>

Cutting Flower Heads: This is not a very effective control because the seeds in the soil can still reproduce and the plant can still grow and reproduce through its rhizomes (root sprouting). (4,3) <>

Mowing: This method has not been completely tested but it does stop the problem of seed reproduction if it is mowed before the flower goes to seed.  If you mow the toadflax well before the toadflax seeds then it will not be able to produce seed that year.  This method can be useful if it is done correctly. If you mow it too early it can still flower and go to seed, or too late and the seeds will still mature in the cut seed heads. You may have to mow repeatedly, check for new flower growth often after mowing. (4,3,1) <>

Grazing: If you allow your cattle to graze then they will eat the buds of the plant or the little tiny sprouts but they will not eat the whole plant. Over grazing can cause toadflax to reproduce vigorously and displace useful native plants and can be harmful to the cattle. (4,3) <>

Reseeding: If you plant different types of native seeds that are competitive then they will hopefully out compete toadflax.  To do this you need to plant something that is competitive and that you want to have on that site.  When you plant you need to monitor where the toadflax is and start by putting the seeds where it has a better chance of taking over.  Toadflax seedlings are weak and are easily over topped by healthy native vegetation and out competed.  Keep the site from being overgrazed. (4,3) <>

10 links:
<>    1. http://www.oneplan.org/Crop/noxWeeds/nxWeed05.htm
<>    2. http://www.whitman.wsu.edu/dtoadflax.html
<>    3. http://www.neweed.org/watchlist.htm
<>    4. http://twinfallscounty.org/dir/weeds/invaders/toadflax.htm
<>    5. http://www.bio-control.com/7i.asp
<>    6. http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/tcweeds/weeds/fact-sheets/dalmation-toadflax.pdf
<>    7. http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/chaffee/noxiousweeds.html
<>    8. http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/Biota/invasive_exotics.htm
<>    9. http://piercecountyweedboard.wsu.edu/DalmationToadflax.html
<>  10. http://www.fws.gov/invasives/staffTrainingModule/assessing/monitoring.html<>

Literature Cited:

1. Jeffries, Aileen, Toadflax Control Methods in the Methow Valley, [Online], Available, http://Methow.com/~mvcc/projects/LIDA/lida.html.

2. Hansen, Rich, Dalmation toadflax and Yellow Toadflax, [Online], Available, http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/weedfeeders/toadflax.html.

3. Fay, K., Peter, Cooksey, Diana, Lacey, R., John, Nowierski, M., Robert, Lajeunesse, Sherry, and Zamora, David, Dalmation and Yellow Toadflax, Pamphlet, pg. 9.

4. Breitenfeldt, Todd, Personal Interview, Biology teacher at Whitehall High School, Box 1109, Whitehall, MT, 59759. tbreit@whtlsv99.ixi.net, Work phone (406)287-3862.

5. Nebraska Weed Control Assosciation, http://www.neweed.org/watchlist.htm<>.

6. Washington State University Weed Information<> , <>http://www.whitman.wsu.edu/dtoadflax.html
<>7. Twin Falls County Weed Control, <><> http://twinfallscounty.org/dir/weeds/invaders/toadflax.htm
By: Cindy Lofftus   1/18/02.  Updated By: Erin Amerman 2/23/09.<>

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