oxeye daisy
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (LINN.)
Family: N. O. Compositae

Photo by: Jane M. Krueger and Roger L. Sheley
Roots: The root is perennial.  They grow slowly through the ground not moving fast.  The roots are hard and wiry making it easy to grow through compact soils.  They are furrowed and very slightly branched.  The roots eventually come through the soil providing the plant to grow. (1)

Stems/Leaves: The leaves, which are small and coarsely toothed.  The leaves that are near the root are rounder than the ones near the stem.  They are on long stalks, and those that are on the stem are oblong and stalk less. (1)

Flowers: Between the middle of May the yellow centered white flower heads bloom and do their best until the end of June.  Under the head of the flower is a ring of sheathing bracts.  These help protect and support the bloom from the insects trying to bite their way in from below. (2)

Fruits and Seeds: The seeds are brown to black and are usually 16th of an inch long.  They have up to 10 white ridges down the side.  The seeds may be viable up to 10 days after the flower blossoms. (1)

Reproduction: After the flower blossoms it disperses its seeds and the wind or other force relocates the seed to germinate.  This process continues throughout each plant as it reproduces its seeds. (2)

Life Style/Habits/Life duration: It's perennial and it grows in colonies anywhere between 2 and 9 plants. (2)

Environments Favorable to Infestation: This weed often tends toward lightly grazed pastures.  When oxeye daisy is abundant that is due to the cutting or grazing of associated plants.  It prefers upland pastures and meadows but can grow along roadsides and also crop or wastelands. (2)

Methods of Control:
Biological Control: No biological controls have been discovered for oxeye daisy. (1)

Herbicides: The oxeye daisy is slightly tolerant to 2,4-D unless if it is applied at very high or toxic rates to the weed.  However, many researchers prefer not to use this method for long term control. (2)

1) http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/d/daisyo04.html, Daisy, Ox-Eye, by Mrs. M. Grieve.

2)  Ox-eye daisy (Chrysanthenmum leucanthemum). no posting date. Pest Management. 3/15/2007.

By Carl Lanz and Kyle Simons 3/15/02.       Updated by: Chad Smith & Justin Gnerer 3/15/2007.

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